**Plase cite as follows:**

Schroeders, U., & Gnambs, T. (2020). Degrees of freedom in multigroup confirmatory factor analyses: Are models of measurement invariance testing correctly specified? *European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 36*(1), 105–113. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000500

**MI testing** |
**constraints** |
**df** |
**comparison** |
**delta(df)** |

config. |
(item:factor) |
0 |
- |
- |

metric |
(loadings) |
2 |
metric-config |
2 |

scalar |
(loadings+intercepts) |
4 |
scalar-metric |
2 |

residual |
(loadings+residuals) |
5 |
residual-metric |
3 |

strict |
(loadings+intercepts+residuals) |
7 |
strict-scalar |
3 |

### Additional information

**A** |
Indicates the number of indicators or items. |

**B** |
Indicates the number of latent variables or factors. |

**C** |
Indicates the number of cross-loadings. For example, in case of a bifactor model the number equals twice the number of indicators (**A**). |

**D** |
Indicates the number of orthogonal factors. For example, in case of a nested factor model with six indicators loading on a common factor
and three items additionally loading on a nested factors, you have to specify 2 factors (**B**) and 1 orthogonal factor (**D**). |

**E** |
Indicates the number of residual covariances. |

**F** |
Indicates the number of groups. |