Computer usage questionnaire: Structure, correlates, and gender differences

Computers in Human BehaviorReference. Schroeders, U., & Wilhelm, O. (2011). Computer usage questionnaire: Structure, correlates, and gender differences. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 899–904. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.11.015

**Abstract.**Computer usage, computer experience, computer familiarity, and computer anxiety are often discussed as constructs potentially compromising computer-based ability assessment. After presenting and discussing these constructs and associated measures we introduce a brief new questionnaire assessing computer usage. The self-report measure consists of 18 questions asking for the frequency of different computer activities and software usage. Participants were N = 976 high school students who completed the questionnaire and several covariates. Based on theoretical considerations and data driven adjustments a model with a general computer usage factor and three nested content factors (Office, Internet, and Games) is established for a subsample (n = 379) and cross-validated with the remaining sample (n = 597). Weak measurement invariance across gender groups could be established using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. Differential relations between the questionnaire factors and self-report scales of computer usage, self-concept, and evaluation are reported separately for females and males. It is concluded that computer usage is distinct from other behavior oriented measurement approaches and that it shows a diverging, gender-specific pattern of relations with fluid and crystallized intelligence.